Saturday, November 10, 2007
VANNEI ZO LANNU:
Mami, ti suh
Mami, ha suh
Mami, melh suh
Mami, sawi suh
A tha lo
I ti leh ta maw?
A dik alom,
Zilh zel rawh
Zilh hauhna duhawm a ni e
Hmangaihna aw ka
Tunge mamawhlo leh
Thatpui lo ngai
Fel sa reng a piang tu kan awm si lo
Kan zilh cham chi e
Weekly ah lam in
Hmeichhe tha leh fel awm dan
-Inchei dan mawi
-mi biangbiak dan
-rawngbawl tui dan
-inchhung enkawl dan
-fa te enkawl dan
-mo fel nih dan tur chen in
I vannei ngei e
Heng zilhna zawngte hian
Rah tha an la nei mawlh ang
Nge ni an nei der tawh le?
I pasal tur an vang tiin
Khawtlang kan buai ta e law…
Hawh u khai
Mami pasal tur
Thlah thlam tawh lawng
Keizawng ka lainat e
I’m nobody’s child ang ziazang in
Zilhtu reng a nei ve lo
Fel hian luat a nei mawlh lo
Awm dan mawi te
I hrilh ve ang
Fa tha nih dan leh
Nupui fanau enkawl dan te pawh
In leh lo din a
Chhungkaw kaihhruai dan thlengin maw le
A mamawh hlei hlei Mama hian
Eng vang nge I ti a maw…
Hnam humhimtu a ni miau
A kokiah hnam future a in nghat e
Lanu hian amah chauhvin
Hnam a chawimawiin
A mualpho zo lo
Hnam khaipa tur
I tuai hriam ang khai
A thatloh chuan
Zoram tan hmabak a thim
Sakhua a in ang lo a,khawtlang nun a inang lo bawk a, hmeichhe dinhmun leh an harsatna tawh te pawh a inang lo hlawm hle. Ram thenkhat ah chuan hmeichhiate sawisak an ni a, thenkhat pawngsual an ni bawk. Chutih lai chuan Srilanka ah te chuan hmeichhe thenkhat erawh suicide bombers an lo ni ve leh zel nen. Engtia hmalak tur nge ni ang le? Hmeichhia leh hmeichhe inkar pawh chinfel a ngai a ni tiin hnialna tam hle. ‘Engpawhnise remna leh muanna thlen tur hian hmeichhiaten kan ti ve thei a,sakhaw hrang ang a kal mai lovin kan tangkhawm thei a, thawkho turin kan inbuatsaih mek zel ang’ ni tih chu member kalkhawm te thuthlukna ber a ni.
Hemi ni hian rilru khawih em em mai chu, Manipuri nu Rose-i chuan he hun hi a tan chuan a mangangna leh harsatna a lo pairuk reng thin sawi chhuah nan rawn hmangin, an state a buaina avanga vawi tam tak pawngsual a lo nih toh avanga a rilru na reh theilo, chumai ni lovin a fanu ngei pawhin pawngsual a tawh thu tap chhuak hawm hawm chunga a rawn sawi khan member-te min vel tap nasa hle.
Domestic Violence Act 2005 hi 13th September 2005 khan India ram President chuan a lo pawmpui tawh a, 14th september 2005 khan Ministry of Law And Justice (Legislative Department) chuan vantlang hriat atan tlangzarh nghal a. Chumi hnu kum khat meuh a han vei hnu 26th? Oct 2006 ah Parliament ah pass a ni ta chauh a ni. DVA (a lam tawi nan hmang mai ila) hi, India ram danpui (Constitution)-in inchhungkhura tharum thawhna leh a kaihnawih thilte avanga harsatna tawk mek hmeichhiate dikna leh chanvo a humhalhna a ni. He dan hian a huamzau hle mai a, hmeichhia tupawh pasal nei tawh, nula, hmeithai leh pasal then a, in hranga cheng tawh, inchhungkhur harsatna tawkte dikna leh chanvo a rawn humhalsak a. Chumai ni lovin, nawhchizuarte chanvo a humhalhsak bawk. Hei hian heng nawhchizuar ho kawppui tur lo siamsak luihte leh an pawisa lakluh lo hlep thensak thinte a khap bawk. Tin hmeichhia a pasalin a pawngsual (marital rape) hi he dan hian a huam tel bawk. (Hei hi hmeichhia a duhloh chunga a pasalin mipat hmeichhiatna a hmanpui luih thin hi a ni).Tunah hian Criminal Law ah dan ang takin hmeichhia te an pasalten an pawngsual case hi la file thei rihloh mahse, DVA hian tunah hian kawngthar, an sahimna tur a pek mai bakah mipate an nupuite laka nunrawnna tur engemawchen a dangbet a ni. Heng bakah hian DVA hian naupang chunga mipat hmeichhiatna hmanga nunrawnna (Child Sexual Abuse) a rawn khap mai bakah a vawikhatna atan naupangten inchhungkhura kut an tawrh lohnan naupang tan dikna leh chanvothar a rawn siam sak bawk.
DVA hian hmeichhe laka nunrawnna hrang hrang, Physical Violence, Sexual Abuse, Verbal violence or Emotional violence leh Economic violence te a huam a. Physical violence hian taksa hliam khawpa insawisak, nunna atan pawha hlauhawm khawp, piansualna leh an hriselna tichhe vek khawp a hmeichhiate chunga hleilenna te a huam a. Sexual Abuse chuan mipat hmeichhiatna kawng hrang hrang hmanga hmeichhiate tih retheih leh an zahzawmna tih bawrhbansak etc te a huam thung. Tin, Verbal Violence leh Emotional Violence hian a huam chin chu tawngkam na tak hmanga rikrap leh an nunphung leh nungchang tichhe thei zawng a vau te, an hnathawk ve tur khap beh sak te, an hna atanga bang tur a nawrluih te, a hlawhchhuah lakluih sak etc te hi a ni. Heng bakah hian fa an hrin theihloh avang leh thuamchhawm tha an neihloh avanga hmuhsit an nih phei chuan nasa lehzuala an chanvo humhalhsak a ni bawk. Economic Violence ve thung ah chuan hmeichhia ei leh bar zawn kawnga sum an dap ve theihna tur dan beh sak te, inchhungkhur bungrua a ma mimal in a a neih leh chhungkua anga a lo neih te mipa in a ma duhthu a a lo tih rilral mai mai etc te a huam tel a ni. Heng ang harsatna hi hmeichhiain a pasal emaw a kawppui (innei chiah si lova a mipa kawp) emaw lak ah a tawk a nih chuan thubuai a theh lut thei a, mahse heng kan tarlanah hian mipa te chauh hi thilsual titu/nunrawnna thlentu an ni bik hauh lo. Hmeichhia te ngei pawh naupang, tar leh mo te chunga nunrawnna thlentu an ni ve thin tho avangin he dan hmang hian hrem theih tho a ni ve bawk.
Chak zawka dan hi kalpui leh hmalak a nih theihnan Magistrate kut ah thuneihna sang tak pek a ni a, a pui turin State Sorkarin Protection officers a (theih hram chuan hmeichhia) district tinah a dah tur a ni. Thubuai hi a rang lamin thenawm hnai emaw, social workers emaw an chhungten Protection officers te hnenah an thehlut tur a ni. He thubuai chinfel a nih hma hian hmeichhia chu a pasal in inchhung atangin a lo hnawtchhuak mai mai tur a ni lova, a pasal nena an chenna inah awm theihna a dil thei a, dan angin inchhung ro leh bungrua la nei lo mahse an chenna in hmun thenkhat lai chu a ma mimal mamawh dah nan a hmang thei bawk. Tin, Protection Officers te hian an mamawh tur damdawi leh eitur pethei turin an inring reng tur a ni. Tin, hmeichhia chu chenna tur mumal nei lo a nih chuan chenna tur hmun ‘Shelter Home’a a ngaihtuah sak bawk tur a ni.
Hmeichhiate humhalh kawngah hian India ram constitution hian dan thenkhat, Equal Remuneration Act, The prevention of Immoral Traffic, the Sati Prevention Act leh Dowry prohibition Act, 1961 te a lo siam tawh a. 1983 provision of Indian Penal Code 498A ah chuan ‘hmeichhia, a pasal emaw, a pasal a chhung tu te pawh in a chunga nunrawnna an lantir a nih chuan, chumi chu dan in a hrem tur a ni a, jail tan theihna kum thum chhung thleng emaw, leichhawitheihna emaw hmanga hrem theih a ni’tiin dan a lo siam daih tawh a, mahse inchhungkhur bika hmeichhiate harsatna tawh chinfelna dan mumal bik hi a la awm ngai hauh lo mai a. Hemi vang pawh hi a ni mai thei, dowry phutna a vanga harsatna leh inchhungkhura hmeichhiaten harsatna an tawh chu a reh tak tak thei chuang hauh lo mai a, a zual tulh tulh emaw tih mai tur a ni ta zawk a ni. DVA 2005 hian inchhungkhura hmeichhiaten harsatna an tawhna leh a hremna, dan hmangin mumal zawkin a rawn pholang ta a. Heng thubuai tarlan takah hian thubuai thehluttu chuan thiam a chang a nih chuan Sum leh pai lam a dikna/hamthatna (Financial Rights) mai bakah chenna tur in ngiat theihnan zalenna a pe bawk. Tin, chu mai ni lovin, thubuai neitu chuan thiamloh a chang a nih vaih chuan hremna na tak kum khat chhung tal jail tan leh thiam loh channa lantirnan Rs 20000/- thleng a a chawi thei bawk.
DVA hi India ram chhunga State zawng zawng (Jammu and Kahmir tiamlovin) a hman tura ruahman a ni. Chuti a nih chuan Mizoram pawh kan bang ta bik hauh lo mai le. Han en mai chuan mizo hmeichhiate hi dan hmanga hmuhalh ngai khawp a India ram hmundang hmeichhiate anga dinhmun rapthlak tak chu an nih hmel loh hle. Khawtlang nun han en phei chuan an zellenin mipa tam tak aia thil tithei leh huaisen tak tak lah an tam bawk si. Amaherawhchu heng vang ringawt hian hmeichhiate humhim na dan hi kan mamawh ve lo tihna a ni leh si lova. Tunhnai maiah pawh hmeichhiaten mipa laka kut an tawrh thawm kan hre zut reng mai a. Pawngsual, nupui sawisak leh thah thu te bakah zirna in thenkhata naupang lo khawih mai mai duh thawm te kan hre ta fo mai. NGO thenkhat ten an duhlohthu an chhuah a, thenkhatin an duhloh entirnan kawng an zawh leh ringawt mai a. Mahse heng hian kawngro a su thui meuh lo. Kum 2005 Crime record ah pawh Mizoram chu Hmarchhak State ah chuan hmeichhe laka nunrawnna ah a sang ber dawttu kan ni hial a nih kha. Chuti anih chuan record a awmlo hmeichhe kuttuar tam tak chu an awm ngei ang. Aizawl nula pakhat chuan ti hian a sawi a ‘ Ka pa zu rui hian ka naupan lai atang tawhin min vau nasa in a chang chuan kut te min thlak ringawt thin a. Tun thleng hian ka dik thei tawhlo, hlauthawng reng reng hian ka awm a, ka dawih em em bakah, ka hriselna thleng hian min nghawngin ka hria’ a ti. Tin, nu pakhat vethung chu nu leh pa nei tawh lovin a nutate belin a awm a, a nuta hian a zuruih in nasa takin kut a thlak thin tih a sawi bawk. ‘Tanpui tur duhin ka au ngam ngai lo,ka au chuan nasa zawkin kut min thlak a ni mai.Ngawi rengin ka dawh mai thin. Ka thil tawrh tawh ka thlirlet hian hmeichhiate humhalhna kawng a zirtirna tha kan mamawh ka ti takzet a, a tuartu ni lo tan chuan thil hriatthiam har tak a ni bawk si’ a ti bawk. Kan chhungkuaah chuan a la thleng ve lo a ni maithei mahse, hmeichhe tam tak chuan an tuar tawh a,an tuar mek zel a nih hi.
Thenkhat tan he dan thar hian thu lawmawm tak thlen mahse, India ram hmun hrang hrangah chuan duhlo tak tak an tam ve hle thung. National newspapers leh internet forum thenkhatah te pawh ‘Hmeichhiate chauh em ni inchhungkhura harsatna tawk? Hmeichhiate fuihpawrhna hmanraw tha tak a ni’ tih te in hnialna tha tak tak a tam ve hle thung. Hei hi a dik na chen a awm a, hmeichhe thenkhat pasal te leh chhungte laka harsatna tuar tam tak an awm laiin thenkhat erawh pasal te leh an pasal chhungte mai bakah mahni nutate ngei pawn an ngamloh/kutthlak mai mai pawh hrehlo khawp a hmeichhe kawlh ve tak tak an lo awm ve leh bawk si. Chumai ni lovin sum leh hamthatna dang duh vangte, mimal inhuat avang mai mai a diklo taka lo hman tangkai tum an lo awm ve thei bawk. Mizoramah pawh hmeichhiate dikna leh chanvo humhalh chungchang han sawi chuan tam tak chuan tul kan ti lo hle thin. Amaherawhchu, thenkhat dikloh avanga midang harsatna sutkian na tur kawng lo dan ringawt hi a dik ber em? Tin, heng harsatna te hi kan fanu leh farnu te pawhin an tawrh hun a la awm dawn. Chutih hunah chuan an thlavang hauh a tul lo tiin kan ngawi mai mai dawn em ni ang? June ni 16, 2006 ah Hyderabad-a ‘Role of Women in Nation Building’ tih thupui hmanga workshop buatsaih a nih tumin Bollywood actress Nandita Das chuan ‘kei chu ka dinhmun hi a tha tawk a, ka pasal in min duat mai bakah sum leh paiah harsatna ka nei rih lova,hmeichhe tam tak tawrh ang hi ka la tuar ve ngai lo. Mahse ka hmeichhiatpui hrehawm nasa tak tuar an awm tih ka hriat hian an chanvo humhalh na tur kawng atan a ke pen ve hi ka tihtur niin ka hria, ka kal zel dawn’ tiin a sawi a. Hei hian mahni dinhmun atanga thuthlukna lo siam mai hi a hun tawhlo a ni tih a tilang thei awm e. Engpawhnise, India ram state thenkhata an hmeichhiate tawrh thin ang dowry avanga harsatna rapthlak tak te Mizo hmeichhiaten tuar ve lo mahse DVA hi kan hman ve a tul hun a awm ngei dawn a, kan palzam mai mai thei dawn lo niin alang. Chuti anih chuan hmeichhe thenkhat inchhungkhura harsatna tawk mek te dikna leh chanvo hmuhalh nan te, hetiang thil hluar zel tur dan beh nan leh dik taka hman a nih theih nan zirtirna mumal tak nen he dan hi kan kalpui thiam a tul hle ang.
(Hei hi nikum November thla a ziah a nia…a hlui tawh deuh maithei a ni)
Saturday, October 6, 2007
Kum 2000 April thla laihawl vel kha ni ta in ka hria, Hyderabad Central University a thiamna sang zawk bei ve tura luh tumin entrance exam pe turin Capital Travels Bus station ka pan a. Kan college a ka hmelhriat mi pathum Bus station ah ka chhar chawp a. An ni pathum nen hian inthurual tlang zelin gawahati Mizoram House bula hotel ah
July thla a lo ni a,entrance result a chhuak a,ka tling ve tih ka hriat rualin kalpui tur ka hre lo,engtinnge nita ang le?Chhungkua
Admission kan han tifel class te kan han zawm ve a, Taitea chu ka hrechiang chho ve tan ta,mahse ka la nel vaklo,a tawng tlem em a ni!!!!Mahse kan zirlai kan la manloh em avang chuan har kan tih thu kan sawi ve thin a,a bikin paper pakhat historical theory phei chu kan thiamlo em2 a,bei a dawng rum2 thin. Vawikhat
Kum 7 ngawt
Thursday, October 4, 2007
The Mizo society in pre-modern times was strictly based on what is known as an extreme patriarchal society. This created ‘private’ and ‘public’ domain, where women were stigmatized to the private sphere that relegated their status in the social and religious life. Being regarded inferior, women practically had nothing to say in both ‘private’ and ‘public’ administration. Women therefore, had no opportunities to go beyond the scope of the ‘domestic sphere’ and it was only men who controlled and dominated the entire ‘public sphere’. They were not supposed to have any independent religious loyalty, but were required to follow the religion of their husbands. This attitude can be attributed to the old Mizo proverb, which says, ‘Women and Crabs do not have a religion’. Besides this, there were numerous proverbs, which expressed men’s attitudes towards women. The cases of sexual abuses like nula zen, hnute deh, mihur zawn etc. were also very common while the society expected them to maintain their chastity. However, as most of these social evil practices had been abolished after the gradual acceptance of modern ideas, Mizo women have been enjoying a much better position when compared to the pre-modern Mizo society.
Christianity of course is the harbinger of ‘modernity’ vis-à-vis women’s liberation in Mizoram. The Christian missionaries therefore are regarded as a symbol of ‘modernization’ which led to the gradual changes in the conservative attitudes of men towards women. As such, women have made their way to the path of public sphere through Christianity for they can equally participate with men in some of the church affairs. Besides, Christian missionaries also brought education, which served as the main conduit for the inclusion of modern ideas to such an extent that it opened new doors for women to move outside the domestic sphere. Since 1950, women’s literacy rate has been on the rise and a number of women began to excel men in some professions. If we look at the present situation, with women making significant mark in many aspects of life, one of the Mizo proverbs has been reversed dramatically as ‘the wisdom of women has reached beyond the other side of the river’. The original saying ridicules women as it goes, ‘The wisdom of women does not even reach the other side of the river’
In spite of the above indications of progressive changes, the new social structure is yet far short from driving home a status of equality for women. Christianity and education indeed opened new doors for women to enter the public domain, but only in a limited way. Despite the increasing number of educated women, only few women hold important positions/portfolios in government jobs. All the political and village administrations are still controlled by men. In religious matters, in spite of the contributions they have made to the church, women are being excluded and are denied from ordination as pastors and elders. One of the Mizo women theologians once said, “Though we have zealously studied theology with a purpose of preaching the Gospels, I am sometimes hurt because men who got less marks than us in our degrees can go through ordination, while we cannot”. If men can be ordained as pastors and church elders, why can’t women? Instead of encouraging women many people however, still opine that those women, who have entered the public sphere are making bold and aggressive claims. This is mainly because, the mindset of current society confines women’s duties to the realms of the home and ‘regards household activities as the most important duties for them; whatever knowledge a woman may acquire from her education, she hardly claims any rewards unless she is proficient in the management of household duties first’. Women, therefore, themselves have largely accepted this attitude without question. Then for many women, ‘education meant only the acquisition of material skills in order to compete with men in the outside world and hence a loss of feminine virtues’. Thus, really not proving beneficial to their well being as opposition to established practices has led to a destabilization of their social security within their very own society.
There is no doubt about the positive impact of ‘Christianity’ and ‘modernity’; however the new social change is both complex and controversial. As modernization promotes new social outlooks and material cultures, the Mizo tradition has lost its hold in many areas of modern life. In recent times concerned members of the society therefore, have begun to defend some of the old practices and intend to revive traditional values and customs. In the context of new social discourses, the Mizo women therefore are often compelled to act as both the victims and guardians of the Mizo tradition. As one of most striking impacts of ‘modernity’ is on the attires of both the sexes; the Mizo traditional dresses have been gradually discarded. Here it can be asserted that Mizo women preserve the culture of the traditional dresses by wearing the Mizo Puan, though most of them have been designed to keep up with new modern trends. Especially where some important functions and ceremonies are concerned, women are still expected to wear only the Mizo Puan. Despite this, the society has often accused only women of setting aside traditional dresses, demanding them to maintain their chastity as well as traditional dresses by wearing Mizo Puan while men are not compelled to uphold the Mizo tradition through the very same act (as Puan is also the traditional men’s dress).
Besides this, the society also attempts to endorse the Mizo traditions through the observation of Customary Laws. With regard to marriage customs, the traditional practice of bride price is still prevalent and the price involved is nominal (a woman is worth only Rs 420). It is generally believed that the prestige of women can be upheld and protected by the way in which the practice of bride price is modified in accordance to the standards of present day life. This point of view has a greater stronghold among the women rather than men as many women’s activists have made demands to increase the price. Some might argue that the position of a Mizo woman is better off than women from other Indian societies where a woman has to pay a dowry as opposed to the bride price. However, it can be assumed that the practice of bride price has devalued a woman’s position and status in the society as it presupposes that she can be sold like an economic asset. In matters relating to the new reconstructed law of inheritance, only men are recognized as legitimate heirs and women do not legally have any rights in the family. This is due to the fact that modernity itself is a patriarchal construct and the changes it brought about are also deeply concerned with the affairs of men. As long as the male-biased customary law of inheritance exists, gender discrimination will exist in the society.
From the light of the above description it can be concluded by saying that ‘modernity reconstructed the structure of Mizo Society from male perspectives and the concept of women’s liberation is also considerably modified by the patriarchal norms of traditional society’. In short it can also be observed that in Mizoram, modernity brings development in material culture, but not complete changes in the conservative ideologies of men towards women. If we look at the present situation, the Mizo society appears to be seen as a ‘man-made society’ where women are subjected into it and live according to the will of men. Today as a result of a consciousness among educated women, questions and debates on women issues has gradually gained significance and has become an important subject. However, almost every issue has ended in mere discussions and the voices of women have been ignored. This might be because the society has not yet realized that his mother, wife, sisters, and daughters can become the victims of the prevailing social systems. Lastly to have a better and a more progressive society, it is significant to rethink the society’s attitudes on women and accept women’s voices as both the sexes have been sharing the work of building the society and its culture.
Bannerji, Himani; Inventing subjects, Studies in Hegemony, Patriarchy and Colonialism, Tulika Books, New Delhi, 2001.
Bonita, Aleaz; Emergent Women (A Mizo Women’s Perspective), Mittal Publications, 2005.
Macionis John, J: Society: The Basics, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2000
Mizo Women Today; Tribal Research Institute, Aizawl, Mizoram, 1991
Sangari, Kumkum (ed); ‘Recasting Women’ (Essays in Colonial History), Kali for Women, New Delhi, 1989.